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More Bible Archaeology Quotes - Exodus Is Myth
#1

More Bible Archaeology Quotes - Exodus Is Myth
The Quest For Historical Israel
Debating Archaeology and the History of Early Israel
Invited Lectures Delivered at the Sixth Biennial
Colloquium of the International Institute for Secular
Humanistic Judaism, Detroit, October 2005

Israel Finkelstein and Amihai Mazar
edited by Brian B. Schmidt
Brill Leiden • Boston 2007
ISBN: 978-90-04-15738-5


The Patriarchs, Exodus, and Conquest Narratives
in Light of Archaeology
Amihai Mazar

The Exodus
No direct evidence on the Israelite sojourn in Egypt and the Exodus can
be extracted from archaeology. The only evidence that one might seriously
consider is circumstantial.
Page 59

In spite of the late-second-millennium b.c.e. relics in the biblical nar-
rative and the few geographical features in the story that may be
identified, the Exodus story, one of the most prominent traditions in
Israelite common memory, cannot be accepted as an historical event and
must be defined as a national saga. We cannot perceive a whole nation
wondering through the desert for forty years under the leadership of
Moses, as presented in the biblical tradition.
Page 60

Archaeologists like John Garstang, William F. Albright, Yigael Yadin, and
others presented the Israelite conquest of the country as a short-lived
event that could be identified archaeologically. Yadin was perhaps the last
to present Joshua as a real military hero who conquered city after city in
Canaan in line with the biblical narrative. Since the 1960s, however, it
has become obvious that this was not the historical reality. Archaeological
investigations have shown that many of the sites mentioned in these
conquest stories turned out to be uninhabited during the assumed time of
the Conquest, ca. 1200 b.c.e. This is the case with Arad, eshbon, ¡Ai, and
Yarmuth. At other sites, there was only a small and unim- portant
settlement at the time, as at Jericho, and perhaps Hebron.
Page 61

It is thus now accepted by all that archaeology in fact contradicts the
biblical account of the Israelite Conquest as a discreet historical event
led by one leader. Most scholars of the last generation regard the
Conquest narratives as a literary work of a much later time, designed to
create a pan-Israelite, national saga.
page 62

At the same time, it must be noted that neither Joshua nor any other
Israelite tradition makes mention of a major historical reality of the
second millennium b.c.e., namely, that Canaan was underEgyptian domination
for three hundred years.
Page 64

In sum, archaeology negates the biblical “Israelite Conquest” as an historical
event, yet it may shed some light on the various ways in which
memories of actual situations and events rooted in the second millennium
b.c.e., early aetiologies and invented stories all found their way into
the later, “melting pot” we call today the Pentateuch and the book of
Joshua.
Page 65
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#2

More Bible Archaeology Quotes - Exodus Is Myth
I have a .pdf copy of that book stored on my hard drive.  If anyone wants to look it over PM me an email address and I'll send it to you.
Robert G. Ingersoll : “No man with a sense of humor ever founded a religion.”
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#3

More Bible Archaeology Quotes - Exodus Is Myth
I learned Exodus was bogus in 1965. The librarians in town were happy to help me find out more about the Bible. I think now that they were closet atheists. They wouldn't have kept their jobs if they had been outed.
  [Image: attachment.php?aid=31] Dog  
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#4

More Bible Archaeology Quotes - Exodus Is Myth
There has been a theory put forth by archaeologist,  Nissim Amzzallag of Ben Gurian University in Israel that Yehweh was originally worshipped as a mettalurgy god similar to Vulcan and other ancient gods of metal.  In many cultures taking ore out of the ground and making metal with it was a magical, god-like endeavour.  In the mines of Timna in southern Israel there have been several indications that  the mines worked by the Canaanites had worship centers dedicated to YHWH as a metal god.  There are also indications of this in the Bible.

Quote:“Everybody recognizes these southern origins of Yahweh, but most scholars stop there,” Amzallag says. “This forms the basis of my theory as well, but I take it a step forward.”

Reading between the lines, the Bible contains clues pointing to an original identity for Yahweh as a metallurgical deity, he says

In the Bible, Yahweh’s appearance is usually accompanied by volcanic-like phenomena. When he descends upon Mt. Sinai to reveal the Torah to the Jews, the mountain erupts in fire, spewing lava and billowing clouds accompanied by earthquakes and thunderstorms (Exodus 19:16-19).



In antiquity, metallurgical deities like the Greek Hephaestus or his eponymous Roman equivalent, Vulcan, were associated with volcanic descriptions - which closely mirror the smoke, fire, black slag and molten red metal produced in the smelting process, Amzallag says.



Poetic metaphors throughout the Bible describe Yahweh as a fiery deity who makes the mountains smoke (Psalms 144:5) and melts them down (Isaiah 63:19b), just like smelters melt down ore to obtain copper and other metals, the researcher notes. In fact, in Psalm 18:18 Yahweh is depicted as anthropomorphized furnace: “smoke rose from his nostrils; consuming fire came from his mouth, burning coals blazed out of it.


To ancient people, the process of melting down rocks to extract metal would have “appeared completely preternatural and required a divine explanation,” Amzallag told Haaretz.

I find this fascinating and it makes sense.  Here's more.....

https://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/.pre...-1.5992072
                                                         T4618
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